What is an ovarian cyst?
Ovarian cysts are tumors that develop at the expense of the ovary. Frequently, polycystic ovary syndrome can cause infertility problems. They are a fairly common problem, with 5% to 7% of women developing one in their lifetime. These are small sizes that are filled with liquids. The cyst is physiological in 90% of cases. He will disappear on his own without any treatment. However, in some cases, ovarian cysts can disrupt fertility. If they get too big or their appearance is suspicious.
The ovaries each contain several groups of follicles, which contain the future oocytes (ovules). At each cycle, under the influence of gonadostimulins (FSH and LH) released by the pituitary gland, several follicles develop. Ovulation occurs in principle on the fourteenth day of the cycle. Only one of them, the most developed called De Graaf follicle protrudes to the surface of the ovary and releases an egg. The fringes of the tubal pavilion, by their movements resembling those of the algae in the water, capture the ovum and make it penetrate into the tubes. After its rupture, the De Graaf follicle will turn into a yellow body that will secrete 2 hormones essential for the preparation of the entire female genital tract. Then, a new cycle resumes and so on.
Follicle growth causes small balls to appear on the surface of the ovary. They are also visible by ultrasound. The cyst is called in two cases: if the follicle exceeds 3 centimeters and if a yellow body persists. Most of the time they only require monitoring. But an ovarian cyst can break and cause severe pelvic pain and complications. Cysts can also develop at the expense of ovarian tissue and become cancerous. Sometimes it’s a whole group of follicles that does not mature, they turn into so many cysts and block the ovary. It is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
The different types of ovarian cysts and their causes
There are 2 categories of cysts: functional cysts and organic cysts. Let’s first mention the so-called functional cysts
Functional cysts of the ovary or liquid cysts
They develop in women of childbearing age. They come from the transformation of an ovarian follicle or from a follicle that has dumped the egg into the uterine horn (the corpus luteum). They are simply an ovarian follicle that, during its development, has secreted too much liquid. They regress mostly at the end of the cycle and are always benign. It is normal to have a small cyst when you are not on a pill. They represent nearly 85% of cysts developing at the level of the ovary.
In some cases, under the influence of inadequate pituitary stimulation or because the ovary is irritated by a nearby infection (salpingitis), the follicle secretes abnormal amounts of fluid sometimes mixed with blood. It is then a painful swelling swelling the ovary, sometimes reaching the size of a chicken egg, or even a grapefruit.
Such functional cysts enlarge to the rules, then regress and disappear. Others, however, may form during subsequent menstrual cycles. Without danger, they often manifest themselves by irregular rules and especially by pains during the period preceding the periods.
Organic cysts of the ovary or solid cysts
Ultrasonography is generally not sufficient to successfully characterize this cyst. Your gynecologist will prescribe either a scanner or an MRI. With this additional examination, we will have an idea of the nature of this cyst
They mainly affect women during menopause. Unlike functional cysts, they do not regress. They are also benign in the majority of cases. But be careful, they can evolve into a tumor process. To this day, their origin is not yet clearly established. There are 4 types to know:
Serous cysts: They are the most common and often appear before the age of 40
Mucoid or mucinous cysts: They are often observed in women aged 20 to 50 years, with a mean age of 42 years.
Dermoid cysts: Their cellular structure is similar to that of the skin. There are some very original things like teeth, hair and tissue that can come from any body organ.
Endometriotic cysts: Linked to a disease called endometriosis, they have a thick wall with blood vessels. Every month, while the rules will flow outward, in this endometriotic cyst there is blood that will be formed. Each me it will grow and we will have a big cyst full of blood.
Symptoms of ovarian cysts
Ovarian cysts are in 50% of the cases without symptoms. We often talk about asymptomatic cysts. Nevertheless, these cysts can generate some moderate signs allowing them to be detected. It is :
-An infertility (Difficulty getting pregnant)
-Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia)
– Weight gain and / or difficulties in losing weight. If you are in this case, you will have to exercise. This will facilitate the disappearance of your cysts.
– Pelvic pain
-Increase in abundance and duration of menstruation (menorrhagia)
-Swings between the rules (metrorrhagia)
-Increased facial hair or other parts of the body
Ovarian cysts and pregnancy
Ovarian cysts are unfortunately very common among women of childbearing age. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome. If most of the time they do not cause any problems, neither to get pregnant, nor during pregnancy, they happen to cause very serious fertility problems.
Indeed, if the cyst is linked to an endometriosis (migration of the endometrial tissue that develops in other organs), the old blood of the rulers can then fall back through the tubes, come to fix on the ovaries and disrupt their smooth operation. This is polycystic ovary syndrome or ovarian dystrophy or Stein-Leventhal syndrome. One in 10 women is affected by polycystic ovary syndrome. There is a link between polycystic ovary syndrome and diabetes. Blood levels of insulin tend to increase in a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome. The symptoms of this disease are: An absence of ovulation (anovulation), weight gain, acne and increased hair growth. The absence of menstruation will then manifest because it will be the direct consequence of a lack of ovulation. The natural treatment that we propose will allow you to restore your ovulation and to be fertile again.
During a pregnancy, an ovarian cyst can hinder your baby’s exit. If this is the case, a cesarean section will be imposed.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):
Are ovarian cysts dangerous?
Whether functional or organic, the cyst can be complicated. It can bleed, bend, break, or become infected. Functional cysts are generally safe and regress spontaneously during menstruation to reappear the next cycle. They are always benign and do not progress to cancer. On the other hand, organic cysts are much more dangerous. Organic cysts develop permanently in the ovary and do not follow the evolution of the menstrual cycle. Most of the time, they are also benign. However, some organic cysts can progress to cancer. Malignant organic cysts are certainly rare, but may be the basis of peritoneal and ganglionic metastases. During a pregnancy, an ovarian cyst can hinder your baby’s exit. If this is the case, a cesarean section will be imposed.
Does an ovarian cyst hurt?
An ovarian cyst is usually asymptomatic (without pain), it does not “hurt”. But it can cause pain and / or chronic heaviness in the lower abdomen.